Leave No Trace Related Research

Leave No Trace focused Research:

The Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics is data-driven in its approach to teaching people how to enjoy the outdoors responsibly. Whether conducting its own studies, or drawing from the findings of recent research, the Center utilizes empirical data to ensure strong education programs, high-quality training, and sound best practices. 

Existing Leave No Trace scientific literature largely aligns with the disciplines of recreation ecology, and human dimensions of natural resources (HDNR). Recreation ecology is a field of study that examines the impact of visitors to protected areas, and has provided the underpinning for Leave No Trace messaging because of its focus on recreation-related impacts. However, one of the most important causes of visitor-created impacts is impactful visitor behavior, which more closely aligns with human dimensions. HDNR research seeks to interpret humans’ attitudes towards, perceptions of, and interactions with the ecosystem. Leave No Trace-focused research of this kind is limited but increasing.

The majority of human dimensions research focused on Leave No Trace has evaluated educational effectiveness by examining communication strategies aimed at increasing knowledge to influence the behavior of recreationists. For example, studies have evaluated strategies to diminish litter (Cialdini, 1996), minimize human and wildlife conflict (Hockett & Hall, 2007), curtail removal of natural objects (Widner-Ward & Roggenbuck, 2003), and discourage off-trail hiking (Winter, 2006). However, few studies have explicitly addressed Leave No Trace and have otherwise focused on nonspecific minimum impact behaviors. An even smaller subset of HDNR studies focused on Leave No Trace has explored visitors to frontcountry areas (see Jones & Bruyere, 2004; Jones & Lowry, 2004; Leung & Attarian, 2003; Mertz, 2002; Taff et al., 2014).

Many of the previous investigations have primarily utilized knowledge of minimum-impact practices as a measure of Leave No Trace effectiveness. While some relationship does exist, a primary shortcoming of focusing on knowledge is that the assumption of a linear relationship between environmental knowledge and behavior is largely false. In other words, increasing knowledge about environmental impact does not necessarily equate to a change in an individual’s behavior.

Contemporary social scientists have begun exploring the influence that values, beliefs, attitudes, and other factors play in determining the behavior of outdoor enthusiasts within the context of Leave No Trace, based largely upon behavioral theory. Additionally, recent research has started examining the perceptions of frontcountry visitors with respect to behavioral theory and Leave No Trace. This is an important consideration in Leave No Trace-related research given the theoretical foundations that suggest attitudes are one of the important influences on behavior.

Recently the Center has been using an approach to explore Leave No Trace-related behaviors of interest which has primarily consisted of visitor observation coupled with paired survey data. This methodology provides the opportunity to ask study participants what they would do while also observing what they actually do in a park or protected area context. Through a multi-method, experimental design including unobtrusive observation, and paired visitor survey data collection, these kinds of studies allow for the examination of attitudes and motivations that lead to a reduction of recreation-related impact.


Latest Research Findings: 

 

Undesignated Trail Management and Messaging Study

Lawhon, B., Taff, B.D., & Schwartz, F. (2016). Undesignated Trail Management and Messaging Study Report. The City of Boulder, Department of Open Space and Mountain Parks. Boulder, Colorado.

Current research efforts:

 

Bouldering Research –  

Bouldering in Rocky Mountain National Park has become increasingly popular, and the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics is conducted research which aimed to gain a baseline understanding of boulderers’ attitudes and behaviors toward the climbing environment, other boulderers, and other park visitors. Through a grant from the Access Fund Center researchers collected data for a 10-day period in October 2015. Though data analysis has just begun, data gathered from this study will be used to develop awareness and education programs and materials to help boulderers minimize their potential impacts to natural, cultural, and social resources in Rocky Mountain National Park and beyond. Results from the study may also help inform park officials who are making future management decisions for bouldering activities.

Undesignated Trail Use Management Research – 

The Center, in conjunction with Penn State University, completed data collection in the summer of 2015 for a study focused on curbing undesignated trail use in natural areas. Due to its methodology, the study is unique in the Leave No Trace scientific literature. The experimental design utilized both visitor surveys and field observation of trail users responses to a suite of five treatments and controls designed to keep trail users on

agency-designated trails. The data, collected over a 30-day period, included over 2200 observations of individual trail users, and garnered nearly 150 paired survey responses, which will allow for comparative analysis of reported behavior and observed behavior. Data analysis began this fall, followed by a full technical report in spring 2016.

Youth Focused Research –

The Center has partnered with Penn State University researchers to conduct a youth-focused study in conjunction with the Outdoor School (ODS) at the Shavers Creek Environmental Learning Center in Pennsylvania. The purpose of the proposed research is to gain understanding of youth perceptions toward Leave No Trace educational practices promoted through the Center’s Promoting Environmental Awareness in Kids (PEAK) program, and associated behaviors, by:

* Specifically examining Leave No Trace-related behaviors with youth at Penn State’s Shaver’s Creek Environmental Learning Center’s – Outdoor School, to determine the effectiveness of PEAK-based educational strategies.

* Specifically examining attitudes and knowledge of specific Leave No Trace practices among youth at ODS.

This study will employ an experimental, equivalent control-group design. Behavior will be measured through direct observation. Additionally, self-reported appraisals will be collected to measure attitudes toward, and knowledge of, the specific PEAK-based Leave No Trace behavior in question. Data collection will occur in spring 2016.

 

Supporting Research:

 

Plan Ahead and Prepare

Cole, David N. 1989. Low-impact recreational practices for wilderness and backcountry. USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report. INT-265

Eunomia Research and Consulting. 2008. Guideline for Working Towards Zero Waste Events. Auckland City Council. Auckland, New Zealand.

Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. The Leave No Trace Skills & Ethics booklet series are 20-30 page booklets that provide in-depth descriptions of low impact practices for a diverse range of recreational settings and outdoor activities:  Alaska Wildlands, Caving, Deserts and Camping, Fishing, Horse Use, Lakes Region, Mountain Biking, North America, Northeast Mountains, Pacific Northwest, Rock Climbing, Rocky Mountains, Sea Kayaking, Sierra Nevada, Southeast, Western River Corridors.

Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. Leave No Trace Courses. Master Educator Course – in-depth low impact outdoor skills training (5-day) designed for people who actively teach others. Trainer Course – in-depth low impact outdoor skills training (2-day) designed for group/trip leaders and other interested individuals. Awareness Workshop – low impact outdoor skill instruction (<1 day) for all outdoor recreationists.

Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. 2007. Leave No Trace 101: 101 Ways to Teach Leave No Trace.  Boulder, CO.

Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. 2008. Leave No Trace Group Use brochure.  

London Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Limited. 2012. London 2012 Zero-Waste Events Protocol. www.london2012.com

Marion, Jeffrey L., Teresa A. Martinez, and Robert D. Proudman. 2001. Trekking poles: Can you save your knees and the environment? The Register 24(5):1, 10, 11.

Martin, Steven and Kate McCurdy. 2010. Wilderness Food Storage: Are Bear-resistant Food Storage Canisters Effective?  International Journal of Wilderness 16(1):13-19.

Stewart, William; Cole, David; Manning, Robert; Valliere, William; Taylor, Jonathan; Lee, Martha. 2000. Preparing for a Day Hike at Grand Canyon: What Information Is Useful?. In: Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference — Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management; 2000 May 23 –27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-4. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 221-225 Available at: http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/22029 

Stoner, Mary A., Kelly, M. Hanlon, S. 1993. Techniques and equipment for wilderness travel with stock. USDA Forest Service. 9323-2839-MTDC. 60 p.


Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces

Belnap, Jayne. 2003. The world at your feet: Desert biological soil crusts. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(5):181-189. 

Camp, R.J., Knight, R.L. 1998. Effects of rock climbing on cliff plant communities at Joshua Tree National Park, California. Conservation Biology, 12 (6), 1302-1306
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1523-1739.1998.97363.x/abstract

Cole, David N. 2004. Impacts of hiking and camping on soils and vegetation: a review. In: Buckley, Ralf (ed.) Environmental impacts of ecotourism. CAB International, Wallingford UK. pgs 41-60.

Cole, D. 1990. Trampling disturbance and recovery of cryptogamic soil crusts in Grand Canyon National Park. Great Basin Naturalist 20:321-326
http://leopold.wilderness.net/pubs/215.pdfhttp://leopold.wilderness.net/...http://leopold.wilderness.net/pubs/215.pdf

Cole, David N. 1993. Trampling effects on mountain vegetation in Washington, Colorado, New Hampshire, and North Carolina. USDA Forest Service Res. Pap. INT-464. 56p.

Cole, D. N., Spildie, D. R. 1998. Hiker, horse and llama trampling effects on native vegetation in Montana, USA. Journal of Environmental Management 53 (1) :61-71.

Cole, D.N., 1995. Experimental trampling of vegetation. I. Relationship between trampling intensity and vegetation response. Journal of Applied Ecology 32 :203-214.

Cole, David N. 1995. Recreational trampling experiments: effects of trample weight and shoe type. Research Note INT-RN-425. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station 4p. Available at:

Cole, D.N. 1995. Disturbance of natural vegetation by camping: experimental applications of low-level stress. Environmental Management. 19 :405-416.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02471982searchType=Publication&Pub=266

Cole, David and Chris Monz. 2003. Impacts of camping on vegetation: Response and recovery following acute and chronic disturbance. Environmental Management 32(6):693-705. 

Cole, David N.; Monz, Christopher A. 2004. Spatial patterns of recreation impact on experimental campsites. Journal of Environmental Management 70: 73-84. Available at:
http://www.wilderness.net/library/documents/science1999/volume5/Leung_5-4.pdf

Cole, David, N. 1982. Wilderness campsite impacts: Effect of amount of use. USDA Research Paper INT-284. 34 p.

Farris, M.A., 1998. The effects of rock climbing on the vegetation of three Minnesota cliff systems. Canadian Journal of Botany 76, 1-10

Hassig, D. W. 1991. A preliminary investigation of conditions of soil and ground cover vegetation on campsites closed to use in the Adirondack High Peaks Wilderness Area (New York). Thesis. State University New York, Syracuse, New York. 77pp.

Hawkins, J. P., Roberts, C. M. 1993. Effects of recreational scuba diving on coral reefs - trampling on reef-flat communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 30 (1) :25-30

Hockett, Karen, Amanda Clark, Yu-Fai Leung, Jeffrey Marion & Logan Park. 2010. Deterring off-trail hiking in protected natural areas:  Evaluating options with surveys and unobtrusive observation. Virginia Tech College of Natural Resources & Environment, Blacksburg, VA.

Jenkins, Carolyn. And Ashley Olson and Jennifer L. Ruesink. 2001. Watch Your Step: Impacts of Trampling on a Rocky Shoreline of San Juan Island, Washington. Department of Zoology, University of Washington

Kuntz, Kathryn and Douglas Larson. 2006. Influences of microhabitat constraints and rock-climbing disturbance on cliff-face vegetation communities. Conservation Biology 20(3): 821–832.

Lawhon, B., Taff, B.D., & Schwartz, F. (2016). Undesignated Trail Management and Messaging Study Report. The City of Boulder, Department of Open Space and Mountain Parks. Boulder, Colorado.

Leung, Yu-Fai, and Jeffrey L. Marion.  1996.  Trail degradation as influenced by environmental factors: A state-of-the-knowledge review.  Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 51(2):130-136.

Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 1999. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 17(4): 20-38.

Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2000. Recreation impacts and management in wilderness: A state-of-knowledge review. In: Cole, D.N. and others (eds.), Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change; Vol 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management, pp. 23-48; May 23-27, 1999, Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-Vol-5. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. http://www.wilderness.net/library/documents/science1999/volume5/Leung_5-4.pdf

Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2004. Managing impacts of campsites. In: Buckley, Ralf (ed.), Environmental Impact of Tourism, Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. pp. 245-258.>

Marion, Jeffrey. 2003. Camping impact management on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail. Appendix 2: Camping Management Practices. Report published by the Appalachian Trail Conference, Harper’s Ferry, WV. 

Marion, Jeffrey, and David Cole. 1996.  Spatial and temporal variation in soil and vegetation impacts on campsites: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.  Ecological Applications 6(2):520-530.

Marion, Jeffrey L. and Yu-Fai Leung. 2004. Environmentally sustainable trail management. In: Buckley, Ralf (ed.), Environmental Impact of Tourism, Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. pp. 229-244.

McClaran, Mitchel, and David Cole. 1993. Packstock in Wilderness: Use, Impacts, Monitoring, and Management. Gen. Tech. Rpt. INT-301. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Stn., Ogden, UT.

Pickering, Catherine, Wendy Hill, David Newsome, and Yu-fai Leung. 2010. Comparing hiking, mountain biking and horse riding impacts on vegetation and soils in Australia and the United States of America. Journal of Environmental Management 91:551-562.

Reid, Scott E. and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2004. An adaptive management assessment of new camping policies in Shenandoah National Park. Environmental Conservation 31(4):274-282.>

Sun, D., Liddle, M. J. 1993. A survey of trampling effects on vegetation and soil in eight tropical and subtropical sites. Environmental Management. 17 (4) :497-510.

Tread Lightly.  2012.  Tread Lightly 101 Online Awareness Course.  (www.treadlightly.org)

Wimpey, Jeremy & Jeffrey Marion.  2010. The influence of use, environmental and managerial factors on the width of recreational trails.  Journal of Environmental Management 91:2028-2037.


Dispose of Waste Properly

Bridle, Kerry, and Jamie Kirkpatrick. 2003. Impacts of nutrient additions and digging for human waste disposal in natural environments, Tasmania, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 69(3):299-306.

Bridle, Kerry, and Jamie Kirkpatrick. 2005. An analysis of the breakdown of paper products (toilet paper, tissues and tampons) in natural environments, Tasmania, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management 74:21-30

Brown, T. J., Ham, S. H., & Hughes, M. (2010). Picking up litter: an application of theory-based communication to influence tourist behaviour in protected areas. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(7), 879-900.

Campbell, Jonathan, and David Gibson. 2001. The effect of seeds of exotic species transported via horse dung on vegetation along trail corridors. Plant Ecology 157:23-35. 

Cilimburg, A., Monz C. & Kehoe, S. 1997. Wildland recreation and human waste: A review of problems, practices and concerns. Unpublished manuscript, National Outdoor Leadership School, Lander, WY. 31pp.

Civil, Karen and Brett McNamara. 2000. Best Practice Human Waste Management Workshop. Workshop Proceedings, Canberra & Jindabyne, Australian Alps Liaison Committee, Environment Australia. 

Clow, David, Rachael Peavler, Jim Roche, Anna Panorska, James Thomas, and Steve Smith. 2011. Assessing possible visitor-use impacts on water quality in Yosemite National Park, California. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 183:197-215. 

Derlet, Robert, K. Ger, John Richards, and James Carlson. 2008. Risk factors for coliform bacteria in backcountry lakes and streams in the Sierra Nevada Mountains: A 5-Year study. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 19:82-90.

Ells, Michael, and Christopher Monz. 2011. The consequences of backcountry surface disposal of human waste in an alpine, temperate forest and arid environment. Journal of Environmental Management 92(4):1334-1337.

Ells, Michael D., Lee, Kathryn J. 2000. The fate of feces and fecal microorganisms in human waste smeared on rocks in a temperate forest environment and its impacts on public health. National Outdoor Leadership School, National Park Service, Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, Ferris State University. 35p.
Have file

Ells, Michael D., Lee, Kathryn J. 2000. The fate of feces and fecal microorganisms in human waste deposited on snow and smeared on rocks in the alpine environment. National Outdoor Leadership School, National Park Service, Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, Ferris State University. 54p.
Have file

Ells, Michael D., Lee, Kathryn J. 2000. The fate of feces and fecal microorganisms in human waste smeared on rocks in an arid environment and its impacts on public health. National Outdoor Leadership School, National Park Service, Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, Ferris State University. 31p.
Have file

Hargreaves, Joanna. 2006. Laboratory Evaluation of the 3-bowl system used for washing-up eating utensils in the field. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 17:94-102.

Jones, M. K., & Lowry, R. (2004). Effectiveness of Trailhead Education on Cleaning Up Dog Litter. City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks. Available at: http://www.bouldercolorado.gov/files/openspace/pdf_gis/IndependentResear.... Boulder, CO 

Ketcham, Peter. 2001. Backcountry Sanitation Manual. Green Mountain Club and the Appalachian Trail Conservancy, Harpers Ferry, WV.

Lachapelle, Paul. Sanitation in Wilderness: Balancing minimum tool policies and wilderness values. In: Cole, D and others (eds.), Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change, 1999; Vol. 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management, pgs 141-147; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-Vol-5. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. Ogden, UT.

Land, Brenda. 1995. Remote Waste Management. USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, Report 9523-1202-SDTDC.

Leffel, J. A descriptive study of human waste collection and disposal alternatives used in the National Park Service (NPS) backcountry.2003 (scroll down page a little to find pdf.)

Lenth, Benjamin, Mark Brennan, and Richard Knight. 2006. The effects of dogs on wildlife communities. Research Report to City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks. Boulder, CO. 

Meyer, Kathleen. 1994. How to Shit in the Woods. 2nd ed. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA.

Temple, Kenneth, Anne Camper, and Gordon McFeters. 1980. Survival of two Enterobacteria in feces buried in soil under field conditions. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 40(4):794-797.

Temple, Kenneth, Anne Camper, and Robert Lucas. 1982. Potential health hazard from human wastes in wilderness. Journal of Soil & Water Conservation 37(6):357-359.

Wells, F., and W. Laurenroth. 2007. The potential for horses to disperse alien plants along recreational trails. Rangeland Ecology & Management 60:574-577.

Wilkinson, Donald, Daniel Armstrong, and Dale Blevins. 2002. Effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998–October 2000. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 02–4107. 


Leave What You Find

Belzer, Bill, and Mary Steisslinger. 1999. The box turtle: Room with a view on species decline. The American Biology Teacher 61(7):510-513.

Benton, G. (2011). Visitor Perceptions of Cultural Resource Management at Three National Park Service Sites. Visitor Studies, 14(1), 84-99.

DiVittorio, Joe, Michael Grodowitz, and Joe Snow. 2010. Inspection and Cleaning Manual for Equipment and Vehicles to Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species. Technical Memorandum No. 86-68220-07-05. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

Gower, Stith. 2008. Are horses responsible for introducing non-native plants along forest trails in the eastern United States? Forest Ecology & Management 256: 997-1003.

Humane Society of the United States. 2009. Should wild animals be kept as pets?  Washington, D.C.

McLeod, Lianne. 2012. Wild animals as pets:  Ethical issues and potential pitfalls.

 http://exoticpets.about.com/od/exoticpetsissues/a/wildanimals.htm.

Mount, Ann, and Catherine Pickering. 2009. Testing the capacity of clothing to act as a vector for non-native seed in protected areas. Journal of Environmental Management 91:168-179.

Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation. 2012. Please Don’t Turn It Loose.  www.parcplace.org. Pamphlet. Arizona Game & Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

Pickering, Catherine and Ann Mount. 2010. Do tourists disperse weed seed? A global review of unintentional human-mediated terrestrial seed dispersal on clothing, vehicles and horses. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18(2):239-256.

Potito, Aaron, and Susan Beatty. 2005. Impacts of recreation trails on exotic and ruderal species distribution in grassland areas along the Colorado Front Range.  Environmental Management 36(2):230-236.

Prinbeck, Gwenn, Denise Lach, and Samuel Chan. 2009. Exploring stakeholders’ attitudes and beliefs regarding behaviors that prevent the spread of invasive species. Environmental Education Research 17(3):341-352.

Root, Samantha, and Catherine O’Reilly. 2012. Didymo control: Increasing the effectiveness of decontamination strategies and reducing spread. Fisheries 37(10):440-448.

Schuppli, C., and D. Fraser. 2000. A framework for assessing the suitability of different species as companion animals. Animal Welfare 9:259-372. 

Ward, C. and J. Roggenbuck. 2003. Understanding park visitor's responses to interventions to reduce petrified wood theft. Journal of Interpretation Research 8:1, 67-82

Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species. 2009. Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters. Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force. 

Widner, C.J. and Roggenbuck, J. W. 2000. Reducing the Theft of Petrified Wood at Petrified Forest National Park, Journal of Interpretation Research. Vol 5.

Wildesen, Leslie. 1982. The study of impacts to archaeological sites. Advances in Archaeological Method & Theory 5:51-96. 

Wisconsin Council on Forestry. 2008. Best Management Practices for preventing the spread of invasive species by outdoor recreation activities in Wisconsin.

Wittenberg, Rudiger, and Matthew Cock (eds). 2001. Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit of Best Prevention and Management Practices. Global Invasive Species Programme. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 


Minimize Campfire Impacts

Bratton, Susan P., Stromberg, Linda L. 1982. Firewood gathering impacts in backcountry campsites in Great Smokey Mountains National Park. Environmental Management 6, 1: 63-71.

Bull, Evelyn. 2002. The Value of Coarse Woody Debris to Vertebrates in the Pacific Northwest. Gen. Tech. Rpt. PSW-GTR-181. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, LaGrande, OR. 

Cole, David N. 1995. Rational behind fire building and wood gathering practices. Master Network, Leave No Trace Newsletter, National Outdoor Leadership School 7, 3:3, 12-3.

Cole, David N. and John Dalle-Molle, 1982. Managing campfire impacts in the backcountry. Research Paper. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station

Davies, Mary. 2004. What’s burning in your campfire? Garbage in, toxics out. USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, Rpt. 0423-2327-MTDC, Missoula, MT. 

Fenn, Dennis B., G. Jay Gogue, and Raymond E. Burge, 1976. Effects of campfires on soil properties. Ecological Services Bulletin, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service

Hall, T. E., and T. A. Farrell. 2001. Fuelwood depletion at wilderness campsites: Extent and potential ecological significance. Environmental Conservation 28:1-7.

Hammitt, William E., 1982. Alternatives to banning campfires. Parks 7, 3:8-9

Hammitt, William E., 1980. Fire rings in the backcountry: Are they necessary? Parks 5, 4:8-9

Houck, James, Andrew Scott, Jared Sorenson, and Bruce Davis. 2000. Comparison of air emissions between cordwood and wax-sawdust firelogs burned in residential fireplaces. In: Proceedings of AWMA & PNIS International Specialty Conference:  Recent Advances in the Science of Management of Air Toxics, Banff, Alberta.

Jacobi, W., B. Goodrich, and C. Cleaver. 2011. Firewood transport by National and State Park campers: A risk for native or exotic tree pest movement. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 37(3):126-138. 

Marion, Jeffrey. 2003. Camping impact management on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail. Appendix 2: Camping Management Practices. Report published by the Appalachian Trail Conference, Harper’s Ferry, WV.

Reid, Scott E. and Jeffrey L. Marion. (In Press). A comparison of campfire impacts and policies in seven protected areas. Environmental Management36(1):48-58. Campfire Impacts EM paper_0.pdf web link http://www.springerlink.com/content/m533171002750054/?p=4ab021c069114deca9d4127507d3b46b&pi=3

 

Trickel, Robert, Nicole Wulff, and Bill Jones. 2012. Invasive species and firewood movement. Fact Sheet 5.4, Don’t Move Firewood website: www.dontmovefirewood.org

Vachowski, Brian. 1997. Leave No Trace campfires and firepans. USDA Forest Service. 9723-2815-MTDC


Respect Wildlife

Access Fund. 1997. Raptors and Climbers: Guidelines for managing technical climbing to protect raptor nest sites. The Access Fund, Boulder, CO. 27pp. Available at: http://www.accessfund.org/pubs/index.php

Albert, D. M., & Bowyer, R. T. (1991). Factors Related to Grizzly Bear: Human Interactions in Denali National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 19(3), 339-349.

Aitchison, S.W. 1977. Some effects of a campground on breeding birds in Arizaona. Importance, preservation, and management of riparian habitat: proceedings of a symposium. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report. RM-43. 175-182

Anderson, S.H. 1995. Recreational disturbance and wildlife populations. Wildlife and Recreation: Coexistence through management and research. Island press, Washington, DC

Anthony, R.G., Steidl, R.J., McGarigal, K. 1995. Recreation and bald eagles in the Pacific Northwest. Wildlife and Recreation: Coexistence through management and research. 223-241. Island press, Washington, DC

Bath, A., J, & Enck, J. W. (2003). Wildlife-human interactions in National Parks in Canada and the USA. NPS Social Science Review, 4(1).

Becker, B. H., Moi, C. M., Maguire, T. J., Atkinson, R., et al. (2012). Effects of hikers and boats on tule elk behavior in a national park wilderness area. Human-Wildlife Interactions, 6(1), 147-154.

Boise Climbers’ Alliance & Idaho Department of Fish and Game (1999). Guidelines for protecting cliff-nesting raptors and climbing management at the Black Cliffs, Boise Idaho. Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Nampa, ID 10pp. Available at:
http://www.boiseclimbers.org/

Borkowski, J. J., White, P., Garrott, R. A., Davis, T., et al. (2006). Behavioral responses of bison and elk in Yellowstone to snowmobiles and snow coaches. Ecological Applications, 16(5), 1911-1925.

Boyle, S. A., & Samson, F. B. (1985). Effects of nonconsumptive recreation on wildlife: a review. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 13(2), 110-116.

Boyce, M.S., Metzgar, L.H., Peters, J.T. 1992. Bighorn sheep and horses on the Bighorn National Recreation Area: Wilderness or pasture? Wilderness Issues in the Arid Lands of the Western U.S. :51-67

Brown, C. L., Hardy, A. R., Barber, J. R., Fristrup, K. M., et al. (2012). The Effect of Human Activities and Their Associated Noise on Ungulate Behavior. PLoS One, 7(7).

Cassirer, E. Frances, Freddy, David J., Ables, Earnest D. 1992. Elk responses to disturbance by cross-country skiers in Yellowstone National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20 (4) :375-381

Cole, D.N., Landres, P.B. 1995. Indirect effects of recreationists on wildlife. Chapter 11 in Knight, R.L.//Gutzwiller, K.J., editors. Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, D.C. Available at:
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/23583

Cole, David N.; Knight, Richard L. 1991. Wildlife preservation and recreational use: conflicting goals of wildland management. In: Transactions of the 56th North American wildlife and natural resources conference 233-237pp. Available at:
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/23604

Coleman, John, and Stanley Temple. 1993. Rural residents' free-ranging domestic cats: A survey. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21: 381-390.

Coleman, John, Stanley Temple, and Scott Craven. 1997. Cats and wildlife: A conservation dilemma. Texas Parks & Wildlife, Austin, TX. 

Dahlgren, R. B., Korschgen, C. E. 1992. Human disturbances of waterfowl: An annotated bibliography. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.. Resour. Pub. No. 188. 62pp.

Davidson, N. 1997. Waterbirds and recreation: considerations for the sustainable management of wetlands. Gibier Faune Sauvage("Hunting and Protected Areas in Europe: Proceedings of the International Seminar, Brussels, June 19, 1996"; Lecocq, Yves; Swift, John; Birkan, Marcel, editors). 14 (2) :211-225.

Gabrielsen, G. W., & Smith, E. N. (1995). Physiological responses of wildlife to disturbance. In R. L. Knight & K. j. Gutzwiller (Eds.), Wildlife and Recreationalists: Coexistence through Management and Research. (pp. 95-107). Washington, DC: Island Press.

Garber, S.D.; Burger, J. 1995. A 20-yr study documenting the relationship between turtle decline and human recreation. Ecological Applications 5 (4) :1151-1162.

George, S. L., & Crooks, K. R. (2006). Recreation and large mammal activity in an urban nature reserve. Biological Conservation, 133(1), 107-117.

Gibeau, M. L., Clevenger, A. P., Herrero, S., & Wierzchowski, J. (2002). Grizzly bear response to human development and activities in the Bow River Watershed, Alberta, Canada. Biological Conservation, 103(2), 227-236.

Goodrich, J.M., Berger, J. 1994. Winter recreation and hibernating black bears, Ursus americanus. Biological Conservation 67 (2) :105-110.

Gookin, J. and T. Reed. 2009. NOLS Bear Essentials: Hiking and Camping in Bear Country. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA.

Gore, M. L., Knuth, B. A., Curtis, P. D., & Shanahan, J. E. (2006). Education programs for reducing American black bear-human conflict: indicators of success? Ursus, 17(1), 75-80.

Greeson, K. M., & Jurin, R. R. (2012). A Qualitative Study of Backcountry Recreationists‚ Perceptions on Cougar-Related Interpretive Media. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 11(2), 57-64.

Gunther, K. A., Haroldson, M. A., Frey, K., Cain, S. L., et al. (2004). Grizzly bear-human conflicts in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, 1992-2000. Ursus, 15(1), 10-22.

Gutzwiller, K. (1991). Assessing recreational impacts on wildlife: the value and design of experiments. Paper presented at the Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference.

Gutzwiller, K.J. 1995. Recreational disturbance and wildlife communities. Chapter 10 in Knight, R.L. Gutzwiller, K.J., editors. Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Hartley, William. 1996. Loving Nature … the Right Way: A Family Guide to Viewing and Photographing Scenic Areas and Wildlife. IntroNet Solutions, Inc. Minneapolis, MN.  

Hicks, L.L., Elder, J.M.1979. Human disturbance of Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management, 43 (4), 909-915

Hockett, K., & Hall, T. (2007). The effect of moral and fear appeals on park visitors beliefs about feeding wildlife. Journal of Interpretation Research, 12(1), 5-27.

Hockett, K. S. (2000). The effectiveness of two interventions on reducing deer feeding behavior by park visitors. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Holmes, T.L., Knight, R.L., Stegall, L., Craig, G.R. 1993. Responses of wintering grassland raptors to human disturbance. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21, 461-468

Joslin, G., and H. Youmans, coordinators. 1999. Effects of recreation on Rocky Mountain wildlife: A Review for Montana. Committee on Effects of Recreation on Wildlife, Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society. 307pp.

Knight, R.L., Cole, D.N. 1991. Effects of recreational activity on wildlife in wildlands. Transcripts of the 56th North American Wildlife & Natural Resources Conference (238-246)

Knight, R.L. Skagen, S.K. 1998. Effects of recreational disturbance on birds of prey: A review. R.L. Glinski (ed.) Proceedings of the Southwest Raptor Management Symposium and Workshop (pp. 355-359) Institute of wildlife research National Wildlife Federation Scientific and Technical Series No.11

Knight, R. L., & Cole, D. N. (1995). Factors that influence wildlife responses to recreationists. In R. L. Knight & K. j. Gutzwiller (Eds.), Wildlife and Recreationalists: Coexistence through Management and Research. (pp. 71-79). Washington, DC: Island Press

Knight, R. L., & Temple, S. A. (1995). Origin of wildlife responses to recreationists. In R. L. Knight & K. j. Gutzwiller (Eds.), Wildlife and Recreationalists: Coexistence through Management and Research. (pp. 81-91). Washington, DC: Island Press.

Knight, R. L., Temple, S. A. 1995. Wildlife and recreationists: co-existence through management. Chapter 20 in Knight, R.L.//Gutzwiller, K.J., editors. Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Knight, R. L., & Cole, D. N. (1995). Wildlife responses to recreationists. In R. L. Knight & K. j. Gutzwiller (Eds.), Wildlife and Recreationalists: Coexistence through Management and Research. (pp. 51-62). Washington, DC: Island Press.

Lackey, B. K., & Ham, S. H. (2003). Contextual analysis of interpretation focused on human-black bear conflicts in Yosemite National Park. Applied Environmental Education and Communication: An International Journal, 2(1), 11-21.

Lindsay, Karen, John Craig, and Matthew Low. 2008. Tourism and conservation: The effects of track proximity on avian reproductive success and nest selection in an open sanctuary. Tourism Management 29:730-739.

Loss, S.R., Will, T., & Marra, P.P. 2013. The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States. Nature Communications 4: 1396 doi: 10.1038/ncomms2380

Manfredo, M. J. (2008). Who cares about wildlife?: Social science concepts for exploring human-wildlife relationships and conservation issues: Springer

Manfredo, M. J., & Dayer, A. A. (2004). Concepts for exploring the social aspects of human-wildlife conflict in a global context. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 9(4), 1-20.

Manfredo, M. J., Vaske, J. J., & Decker, D. J. (1995). Human dimensions of wildlife management: Basic concepts. In R. L. Knight & K. j. Gutzwiller (Eds.), Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA (pp. 17-31).

Manfredo, M. J., Vaske, J. J., & Decker, D. J. (1995). Human dimensions of wildlife management: Basic concepts. In R. L. Knight & K. j. Gutzwiller (Eds.), Wildlife and Recreationalists: Coexistence through Management and Research. (pp. 17-31). Washington, DC: Island Press.

Dvorak, R. G., & Manning, R. E. (2008). Wildlife feeding in parks: methods for monitoring the effectiveness of educational interventions and wildlife food attraction behaviors. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 13(6), 429-442

Marion, Jeffrey L., Robert G. Dvorak and Robert E. Manning. 2008. Wildlife feeding in parks: Methods for monitoring the effectiveness of educational interventions and wildlife food attraction behaviors.  Human Dimensions of Wildlife 13: 429-442

Martin, S. R., & McCurdy, K. (2009). Wilderness food storage in Yosemite: Using the theory of planned behavior to understand backpacker canister use. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14(3), 206-218.

Mazur, R. (2008). Backpacker use of bear-resistant canisters and lockers at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Ursus, 19(1), 53-58.

McCleery, R. A. (2009). Improving Attitudinal Frameworks to Predict Behaviors in Human-Wildlife Conflicts. Society and Natural Resources, 22(4), 353-368.

Miller, S. G., Knight, R. L., & Miller, C. K. (2001). Wildlife responses to pedestrians and dogs. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 124-132.

Orams, Mark. 2002. Feeding wildlife as a tourism attraction: A review of issues and impacts. Tourism Management 23:281-293.

Papouchis, C. M., Singer, F. J., & Sloan, W. B. (2001). Responses of desert bighorn sheep to increased human recreation. The Journal of wildlife management, 573-582.

Rogers, Lynn. 1991. Reactions of black bears to human menstrual odors. Journal of Wildlife Management 55(4):632-634.

Sawyer, Marit. 1997. How recreational activities affect wildlife: A review of Knight and Cole's Effects of Recreational Activity on Wildlife in Wildlands (1991). Master Network newsletter Fall (No.16) :4pp..

Smith, T., S. Herrero, T. DeBruyn, and J. Wilder. 2008. Efficacy of bear deterrent spray in Alaska. The Journal of Wildlife Management 72(3):640-645.

St-Louis, A., Hamel, S., Mainguy, J., & Cote, S. D. (2012). Factors influencing the reaction of mountain goats towards all-terrain vehicles. The Journal of wildlife management, 77(3), pp. 599-605.

Stankowich, T. (2008). Ungulate flight responses to human disturbance: a review and meta-analysis. Biological Conservation, 141(9), 2159-2173.

Stalmaster, Mark V., Kaiser, James L. 1998. Effects of recreational activity on wintering bald eagles. Pages 1-46 Wildlife Monographs 137.

Taylor, A. R., & Knight, R. L. (2003). Wildlife responses to recreation and associated visitor perceptions. Ecological Applications, 13(4), 951-963.

Taylor, Ken, Ros Taylor, Kath Longden, and Paul Fisher. 2005. Dogs, access and nature conservation. English Nature Rpt 649. Peterborough, England.

Vachowski, Brian. 1994. Low impact food hoists. USDA Forest Service. 9523-2809-MTDC. 14 p.

http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/pdfpubs/pdf95232809/pdf95232809Pdpi72.pdf

Vandeman, M. J. (2000). Wildlife Need Habitat Off-Limits to Humans! Paper presented at the Society for Conservation Biology meeting, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana.

Vaske, J. J., Decker, D. J., & Manfredo, M. J. (1995). Human dimensions of wildlife management: an integrated framework for coexistence. In R. L. Knight & K. j. Gutzwiller (Eds.), Wildlife and Recreationalists: Coexistence through Management and Research. (pp. 33-49). Washington, DC: Island Press.

White, Don, Jr., Kendall, K.C., Picton, H.D. 1999. Potential energetic effects of mountain climbers on foraging grizzly bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27 (1) :146-151.

Whittaker, D., & Knight, R. L. (1998). Understanding wildlife responses to humans. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 26, 312-317.

Wieczorek-Hudenko, H. (2012). Exploring the Influence of Emotion on Human Decision Making in Human-Wildlife Conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 17(1), 16-28.

Wiles, R. A., & Hall, T. E. (2003). Understanding Visitor Attitudes, Beliefs, and Motivations about Feeding Wildlife.


Be Considerate of Other Visitors

Manning, R.E., Valliere, W.A., 2001, Coping in outdoor recreation: Causes and consequences of crowding and conflict among community residents. Journal of Leisure Research. Vol. 33 (4), 99. 410-426
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.165.9187&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Manning, Robert, and Laura Anderson. 2012. Managing Outdoor Recreation: Case Studies in the National Parks. CABI, Cambridge, MA.j

Schneider, I.E., Hammitt, W.E. 1995, Visitor response to outdoor recreation conflict: A conceptual approach. Leisure Sciences, Vol. 17 (3), pp. 223-234

Schneider, I.E. 2000. Revisiting and revising recreation conflict research. Journal of Leisure Research. Vol. 32 (1) pp.129-132

Stewart, William P.; Cole, David N. 2001. Number of encounters and experience quality in Grand Canyon backcountry; consistently negative and weak relationships. Journal of Leisure Research 33(1): 106-120
http://www.gcmrc.gov/library/reports/cultural/Recreation/Stewart2001.pdf

Watson, Alan E.; Niccolucci, Michael J.; Williams, Daniel R. 1994. The nature of conflict between hikers and recreational stock users in the John Muir Wilderness. Journal of Leisure Research 26(4): 372-385.
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_1994_watson_a001.pdf


General

Aitchison, S. W. 1976. Human impact on the Grand Canyon. Down River 3 (4) :18-19

Aune, K.E. 1981. Impacts of winter recreationists on wildlife in a portion of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA. 111pp.

Bradley, J. A. (1979). A human approach to reducing wildland impacts. In R. Ittner, D. R. Potter, J. K. Agee & S. Anshell (Eds.), Proceedings - Recreational Impacts on Wildlands (pp. 222-226). Report No. R-6-001-1979. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region.

Bromley, M., Marion, J., & Hall, T. (2013). Training to teach Leave No Trace: efficacy of Master Educator courses. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration31(4).

Brown, J. H., Jr., Kalisz, S.P., Wright, W.R. 1997. Effects of recreational use on forested sites. Environmental Management 1 (5) :425-431

Buckly, R. 2004. Environmental impacts of ecotourism. Cambridge, MA, USA : CABI Pub., 2004.389 p. Available at: http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=wueZG01A9YoC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=environmental+impacts+of+ecotourism&ots=Pm_6F2it_7&sig=wgZb-qV5eYlpmRi-2rWkCvdbRF0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Carlson, Lars H., Godfrey, Paul J. 1989. Human impact management in a costal recreation and natural area. Biological Conservation. 49 (2) :141-156

Christensen, N. A., & Cole, D. N. (2000). Leave No Trace practices: Behaviors and preferences of wilderness visitors regarding use of cookstoves and camping away from lakes. In S. F. McCool, W. T. Borrie & J.O'Loughlin (Eds.), Proceedings - Wilderness Science in a Time of Change Conference (Vol. RMRS-P-15-VOL-4, pp. 77-85). Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Cole, David N. 2000. Biophysical impacts of wildland recreation use. Gartner, William C. and David W. Lime, editors. Trends in outdoor recreation, leisure and tourism. CABI publishing, Wallingford, UK: 257-264

Cole, David N. 2004. Environmental impacts of outdoor recreation in wildlands. In: Manfredo, M.; Vaske, J., Field, D, Brown, P. and Bruyere, B. (eds). Society and resource management: a summary of knowledge. Modern Litho: Jefferson City, MO: 107-116.

Cole, D.N., Knight, R. L. 1990. Impacts of recreation on biodiversity in wilderness. Pages 33-40 Wilderness areas: their impacts; proceedings of a symposium. Utah State University, Logan, Utah

Cole, David N. 1986. Resource impacts caused by recreation. In: A literature review: The President's Commission on Americans Outdoors. Washington, DC: The President's Commission on Americans Outdoors: Management 1-11pp. Available at: 
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/23615

Cole, D. N. 1990. Ecological impacts of wilderness recreation and their management. Pages 425-466 Hendee, J. C. Stankey, G. H. Lucas, R. C., editors. Wilderness Management. North American Press, Golden, Colorado

Cole, David N., van Wagtendonk, Jan W., McClaran, Mitchel P., Moore, Peggy E., McDougald, Neil K. 2004. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreation pack stock. Journal of Range Management 57(2): 153-160. Available at:
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/23534

Confer, J. J., Mowen, A. J., Graefe, A. R., & Absher, J. D. (2000). Magazines as wilderness information sources: assessing users' general wilderness knowledge and specific Leave No Trace knowledge. In D. N. Cole, S. F. McCool, W. T. Borrie & J. O'Loughlin (Eds.), Proceedings - Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service. Fort Collins; USA: Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Cordell, H. Ken; Tarrant, Michael A.; McDonald, Barbara L.; and Bergstrom, John C. 1998. How the public views wilderness. International Journal of Wilderness, 4(3): 28-31.

Cordell, H. K., Tarrant, M. A., & Green, G. T. 2003. Is the public viewpoint of wilderness shifting? International Journal of Wilderness, 9(2), 27-32

Cordell, H. Ken and Jeff Teasley. 1998. Recreational Trips to Wilderness: Results from the USA National Survey on Recreation and the Environment. The International Journal of Wilderness, 4(1): 23-27.

Cordell, H. Ken and Patrick C. Reed. 1990. Untrammeled by Man: Preserving Diversity Through Wilderness. Preparing to Manage Wilderness in the 21st Century, Proceedings of the Conference. Athens, GA: USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report SE-66, 1-4

Floyd, Myron F. and Johnson, Cassandra. 2002. Coming to terms with environmental justice in outdoor recreation: a conceptual discussion with research implications. Leisure Sciences. 24(1):59-77.

Fly, J. Mark; Jones. Robert Emmet; and Cordell H. Ken. 2000. Knowledge of and attitudes toward Wilderness in the Southern Appalachian ecoregion. Wilderness science in a time of change conference, Volume 2: Wilderness within the context of larger systems. RMRS-P-15-Vol-2 Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 201-204

Giuseffi, J. M. (2011). Environmentally Responsible Behavior and the Application of Leave No Trace Beyond the Backcountry. Ohio University.  

Hampton, B., & Cole, D. (2003). Soft Paths. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.

Harmon, W. (1997). Leave No Trace Minimum Impact Outdoor Recreation Helena, MT: Falcon Publishing, Inc.

HaySmith, L., Hunt, J.D. 1995. Nature tourism: impacts and management. Pages 203-219 in Knight, R.L.//Gutzwiller, K.J., editors. Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Jones, M. K. (1999). Leave No Trace: Pilot Project Report. City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks. Available at: http://www.bouldercolorado.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id... Boulder, CO

Jones, M. K., & Bruyere, B. (2004). Frontcountry Leave No Trace Program Evaluation, City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, Keystone, CO.

Lawhon, B., Newman, P., Taff, B. D., Vaske, J. J., et al. (2013). Factors Influencing Behavorial Intentions for Leave No Trace Behaviors in National Parks. Journal of Interpretation Research (In Press).

Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. (2011). Leave No Trace PEAK Program. Retrieved November 13, 2011, from http://lnt.org/programs/peak.php

Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. (2012). Leave No Trace Frontcountry Program. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://lnt.org/programs/frontcountry.php

Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. (2012). Leave No Trace Mission. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://lnt.org/aboutUs/index.php

Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. (2012). Leave No Trace Principles. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://lnt.org/programs/principles.phpLeave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. (2012). Leave No Trace Training. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://lnt.org/training/index.phpLeave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics. (2013). Strategic Objectives. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from http://lnt.org/about/what-we-are-working-nowMarion, J. L., & Reid, S. E. (2001). Development of the US Leave No Trace program: An Historical Perspective. In M. B. Usher (Ed.), Enjoyment and Understanding of the National Heritage (pp. 81-92). Edinburgh, Scotland: Scottish Natural Heritage & the Stationery Office.

Leopold, Aldo. 1949. A Sand County Almanac. Oxford University Press, Inc. New York.

Louv, R. (2008). Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books.

Marion, Jeffrey L. Cole, David N.1989. Evaluating recreation impacts: a multi-faceted research design. Park Science 9(2): 23-24 Available at: http://leopold.wilderness.net/pubs/177.pdf

Marion, Jeff L. 1998. Recreation Ecology Research Findings: Implications for Wilderness and Park Managers. Proceedings of the National Outdoor Ethics Conference, April 18-21, 1996, St. Louis, MO. (1998)

Marion, J. L., Lawhon, B., Vagias, W. M., & Newman, P. (2011). Revisiting Beyond Leave No Trace. Ethics, Policy & Environment, 14(2), 231-237.

Marion, J. L., & Reid, S. E. (2001). Development of the US Leave No Trace program: An Historical Perspective. In M. B. Usher (Ed.), Enjoyment and Understanding of the National Heritage (pp. 81-92). Edinburgh, Scotland: Scottish Natural Heritage & the Stationery Office.

Marion, Jeffrey L. and Scott Reid. 2001. Development of the United States Leave No Trace programme: A historical perspective. In: Usher, M.B. (ed.), Enjoyment and Understanding of the Natural Heritage. Scottish Natural Heritage, Edinburgh: The Staionery Office Ltd., Scotland. pp.81-92.

Marion, J. L., & Reid, S. E. (2007). Minimising visitor impacts to protected areas: the efficacy of low impact education programmes. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(1), 5-27.McGivney, A. (2003). Leave no trace: A guide to the new wilderness etiquette. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers.

Mertz, S. (2002). Compliance with Leave No Trace Frontcountry Principles: A preliminary examination of visitor behavior. City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks. Available at: http://www.bouldercolorado.gov/files/openspace/pdf_research/obsv-stdy-re... Boulder, CO

Morley, L., Chase, M. R., Day, R. W., & Lawhon, B. (2008). Conviction of the heart: implementing leave-no-trace principles in outdoor recreation. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 79(7), 29-34.

Newman, P., Manning, R., Bacon, J., Graefe, A., et al. (2003). An evaluation of Appalachian Trail hikers' knowledge of minimum impact skills and practices. International Journal of Wilderness, 9(2), 34-38.

Newsome, David E., David N. Cole and Jeffery L. Marion. 2004. Environmental impacts associated with recreational horse riding. Buckley, Ralf (ed), Environmental Impact of Tourism, Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing. Pp61-82.

Oelschlaeger, M. 1995. Taking the land ethic outdoors: its implications for recreation. Pages 335-350 Knight, R.L.//Gutzwiller, K.J., editors. Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, D.C.. 372pp.

Olson-Rutz, K. M.; Marlow, C. B.; Hansen, K.; Gagnon, L. C.; Rossi, R. J. 1996. Packhorse grazing behavior and immediate impact on a timberline meadow. Journal of Range Management Society for Range Management 49: 546-550. Available at:
http://titan.cfc.umt.edu/node/1749

Reid, Scott., Marion, Jeff. The Efficacy of Visitor Education Programs. Research Paper

Riley, S. J., Decker, D. J., Carpenter, L. H., Organ, J. F., et al. (2002). The essence of wildlife management. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 585-593.

Simon, G. L., & Alagona, P. S. (2009). Beyond leave no trace. Ethics Place and Environment (Ethics, Place & Environment (Merged with Philosophy and Geography)), 12(1), 17-34.

Spildie, David R.; Cole, David N.; Walker, Sarah C. 2000. Effectiveness of a Confinement Strategy in Reducing Pack Stock Impacts at Campsites in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho. Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference— Volume 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management; 2000 May 23– 27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 199-208. Available at:
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/21864

Swain, R. (1996). Leave No Trace – Outdoor skills and ethics program. International Journal of Wilderness, 2(3), 24-26.

Taff, D., Newman, P., Bright, A., & Vagias, W. (2011). Day-User Beliefs Regarding Leave No Trace in Rocky Mountain National Park. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 3(2), 13.

Turner, J. M. (2002). From woodcraft to 'leave no trace': wilderness, consumerism, and environmentalism in twentieth-century America. Environmental History, 7(3), 462-484.

Vagias, W. M., & Powell, R. B. (2010). Backcountry Visitors Leave No Trace Attitudes. Journal of Wilderness, 16(3), 21.

Wall, G., & Wright, C. (1977). The environmental impact of outdoor recreation. Publication Series, Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Ontario,Canada(11).

Watson, Alan E., H. Ken Cordell, and Lawrence A. Hartmann. 1989. Characteristics of Wilderness Users in Outdoor Recreation Assessments. In: Recreation and Park Management, Papers from the First National Symposium on Social Science in Resource Management. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, College of Forestry, 1-10.


Visitor Management/Education

Beeton, S. 1999, Hoofing it – on four or two feet? Managing multi-use trails and sites. Current Issues in Tourism. Vol. 2 (2-3), pp. 211-225

Bissix, G., Rive, K., & Kruisselbrink, D. (2009). Identifying key messages to encourage minimal impact on the Cape Split Trail. Leisure/Loisir, 33(2), 615-636.

Bradford, L. E. A., & McIntyre, N. (2007). Off the beaten track: Messages as a means of reducing social trail use at St. Lawrence Islands National Park. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 25(1), 1-21.

Cole, David N. 2001. Day users in Wilderness: How different are they?. USDA Forest Service Research Paper RMRS-RP-31. 29 p.
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_rp031.pdf

Cole, David N. 2004. Monitoring and management of recreation in protected areas: the contributions and limitations of science. 2004 June 16-20; Rovaniemi, Finland. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute: 9-16.
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/23538

Cole, David N. and Vita Wright. 2003. Wilderness visitors and recreation impacts: baseline data available for twentieth century conditions. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-117. 52 p.

Cole, David N.; Petersen, Margaret E.; Lucas, Robert C. 1987. Managing wilderness recreation use: common problems and potential solutions. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-230. Ogden, UT: USDA For. Serv., Intermountain Research Station .
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_int/int_gtr230.pdf

Confer, J.J.; Absher, J.D.; Grafe, A. R.; Titre, J. 1998. Relationship between visitor knowledge of “ Leave No Trace” minimum impact practices and attitudes toward selected management practices. In: Proceedings 1998 Northeast Recreation Research Symposium. GTR-NE-255. p 142.

Daniels, M.L., & Marion, J.L. (2005). Communicating leave no trace ethics and practices: Efficacy of two-day trainer courses. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 23(4), 1-19. Contact Jody Ball jball@sagamorepub.com or visit http://www.sagamorepub.com for subscription information for the Journal of Park and Recreation.

Douchette, Joseph, and David Cole. 1993. Wilderness visitor education: Information about alternative techniques. Gen. Tech. Rpt. INT-295, USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.

Dowell, D. L., McCool, S. F., Huffman, M. G., & Williams, D. R. (1986). Evaluation of wilderness information dissemination program; Computer versus brochure information dissemination as a backcountry management tool. General Technical Report, Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service(INT-212), 494-508.

Duncan, G. Martin, S. 2002. Comparing the effectiveness of interpretive and sanction messages for influencing wilderness visitors’ intended behavior. International Journal of Wilderness. Vol. 8 Num. 2. p.6

English, D. B. K., Zarnoch, S. J., & Kocis, S. M. 2004. Designing a sampling system for concurrently measuring outdoor recreation visitation and describing visitor characteristics. Proceedings of the second international conference on monitoring and management of visitor flows in recreational and protected areas (pp. 27-32). Saarijarvi, Finland: Finnish Forest Research Institute.

Fazio, J. R. (1979). Communicating with the wilderness user. Bulletin Number 28. University of Idaho, College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station. Moscow, ID 

Flint, D., 1998, US National Parks: visitor experience and resource protection. Geography Review. Vol. 11 (5), pp.20-31

Gutzwiller, Kevin and David Cole. 2005. Assessment and management of wildland recreational disturbance. In: Clait Braun (ed.) Wildlife Management Techniques Manual, 6th ed. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD. pgs 779-796.

Ham, S. H. (2007). Can interpretation really make a difference? Answers to four questions from cognitive and behavioral psychology. Paper presented at the Paper presented at the Interpreting World Heritage Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia Canada.

Ham, S. H., & Krumpe, E. E. (1996). Identifying audiences and messages for nonformal environmental education – A theoretical framework for interpreters. Journal of Interpretation Research, 1(1), 11-23.

Ham, Sam, Terry Brown, Jim Curtis, Betty Weiler, Michael Hughes, Mark Poll. 2007. Promoting persuasion in protected areas: A guide for managers. Sustainable Tourism CRC.

Hammitt, W. E., & Cole, D. N. (1998). Wildland recreation ecology and management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Harding, James A., William T. Borrie, and David N. Cole. 2000. Factors that limit compliance with low-impact recommendations. In: Cole, David N., Stephen F. McCool, William T. Borrie, and Jennifer O’Loughlin, comps. Wilderness science in a time of change conference--Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-P-15-VOL-4:198-202. Available:
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/22025

Hockett, Karen, Amanda Clark, Yu-Fei Leung, Jeffrey L. Marion, and Logan Park. "Deterring Off-Trail Hiking in Protected Natural Areas: Evaluating Options with Surveys and Unobtrusive Observation" (2010): U.S. Geological Survey

Hungerford, H. R., & Volk, T. L. (1990). Changing learner behavior through environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 21(3), 8-22.

Jones, P. E. (1988). An evaluation of the 'BWCAW User Education Program': a cognitive and behavioral analysis. Dissertation Abstracts International, A (Humanities and Social Sciences), 48(9), p.2451.

Kuo, I. (2002). The effectiveness of environmental interpretation at resource-sensitive tourism destinations. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4(2), 87-101.

Kuss, F.R., Graefe, A.R. & Vaske, J.J. 1990. Visitor impact management: A review of research. Washington, DC: National Parks and Conservation Association.

Leung, Y., & Attarian, A. (2003). Frontcountry Visitor Information/Education Programs. Journal of Wilderness, 9(1), 32.

Leung, Yu-Fai and Jeffrey L. Marion. 2000. Recreation impacts and management in wilderness: A state-of-knowledge review. In: Cole, D.N. and others (eds.), Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change; Vol. 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management, pp. 23-48; May 23-27, 1999, Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-Vol-5. Ogden, UT: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station
http://www.wilderness.net/library/documents/science1999/volume5/Leung_5-4.pdf

Manning, R. E. (2003). Emerging principles for using information/education in wilderness management. International Journal of Wilderness, 9(1), 20-27.

Manning, R. E. (2007). Parks and carrying capacity commons without tragedy. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Marion, J. L. (1998). Recreation ecology research findings: Implications for wilderness and park managers. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the National Outdoor Ethics Conference, St. Louis, MO.

Marion, J. L. (2016). A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking.Journal of Forestry114(3), 339-351.

Marion, Jeffrey L. and Scott E. Reid. 2007. Minimising visitor impacts to protected areas: The efficacy of low impact education programmes. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 15(1): 5-27. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/253369360_Minimising_Visitor_Impacts_to_Protected_Areas_The_Efficacy_of_Low_Impact_Education_P rogrammes

Marion, Jeffrey L. and Tracy Farrell. 2002. Management Practices that Concentrate Visitor Activities: Camping Impact Management at Isle Royale National Park, USA. Journal of Environmental Management 66(2): 201-212. 

Martin, S. R., Marsolais, J., & Rolloff, D. (2009). Visitor perceptions of appropriate management actions across the recreation opportunity spectrum. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 27, 56-69.

McCool, Stephen F.; Cole, David N. 2000. Communicating Minimum Impact Behavior With Trailside Bulletin Boards: Visitor Characteristics Associated With Effectiveness. Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference— Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management; 2000 May 23–27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-4. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 208-216. Available at:
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/22027

Monz, Christopher, Joseph Roggenbuck, David Cole, Richard Brame, and Andrew Yoder. 2000. Wilderness party size regulations: implications for management and a decision making framework. In: Cole, David N., Stephen F. McCool, William T. Borrie, and Jennifer O’Loughlin, comps. Wilderness science in a time of change conference--Volume 4: Wilderness visitors, experiences, and visitor management. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-P-15-VOL-4:265-273.
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/22036

Mowen, A.J., Graefe, A.R., Williams, D.R., 1998. An assessment of activity and trail type as indicators of trail user diversity. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration. Vol. 16 (1). pp. 80-86

National Association of State Park Directors. (2011). Retrieved November 14, 2011, from http://www.naspd.org/

Newman, Peter, Robert Manning, Jim Bacon, Alan Graffe and Gerard Kyle. An Evaluation of Appalachian Trail Hikers’ Knowledge of Minimum Impact Skills and Practices. International Journal of Wilderness August 2003 • Volume 9, Number 2

Nesbitt, R. K. (2006). Toward an Understanding of Noncompliant Behavior in Outdoor Recreation: Linking the Theory of Planned Behavior to Off-Leash Dogs at William B. Umstead State Park.

Oliver, S. S., Roggenbuck, J. W., & Watson, A. E. (1985). Education to reduce impacts in forest campgrounds. Journal of Forestry, 83(4), 234-236.

Orams, M. B. (1997). The effectiveness of environmental education: can we turn tourists into'Greenies'? Progress in tourism and hospitality research, 3, 295-306

Park, L. O., Manning, R. E., Marion, J. L., Lawson, S. R., et al. (2008). Managing visitor impacts in parks: a multi-method study of the effectiveness of alternative management practices. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26(1), 97-121.

Pilcher, E. J., Newman, P., & Manning, R. E. (2009). Understanding and Managing Experiential Aspects of Soundscapes at Muir Woods National Monument. Environmental Management, 43(3), 425-425-435.

Pyke, Kathryn. Jodice, Patrick. Davidson, Sam. 2001. Climbing Management: A Guide to Climbing Issues and the Production of a Climbing Management Plan. Access Fund. http://www.accessfund.org/atf/cf/%7B1F5726D5-6646-4050-AA6E-C275DF6CA8E3%7D/CM-web.pdf

Roggenbuck, J. W. (1992). Use of persuasion to reduce resource impacts and visitor conflicts. In M. J. Manfredo (Ed.), Influencing human behavior theory and application in recreation, tourism, and natural resources management (pp. 149-208). Champaign, IL: Sagamore Pub. Inc.

Roggenbuck, J. W., & Berrier, D. L. (1982). A comparison of the effectiveness of two communication strategies in dispersing wilderness campers. Journal of Leisure Research, 14(1), 77-89.

Roggenbuck, J. W., Williams, D. R., & Bobinski, C. T. (1992). Public-private partnership to increase commercial tour guides' effectiveness as nature interpreters. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 10(2), 41-50.

Taff, B. D. (2012). Messaging and national park visitor attitudes.  Ph.D. Dissertation, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO.  

Vagias, W. M. (2009). An examination of the Leave No Trace visitor education program in two US National Park Service units.  Ph.D. Dissertation, Clemson University, Clemson, SC.  

Vistad, O. I. (2003). Experience and management of recreational impact on the ground: A study among visitors and managers. Journal for Nature Conservation, 11(4), 363-369.

Widman, C. G. (2010). Discouraging Off-Trail Hiking to Protect Park Resources: Evaluating Management Efficacy and Natural Recovery. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.  

Winter, P. L. (2006). The impact of normative message types on off-trail hiking. Journal of Interpretation Research, 11(1), 35-52.

Yuan, S. Maiorano, B. Yuan, M. 1995. Techniques and equipment for gathering visitor use data on recreation sites. USDA Forest Service. 9523-2838-MTDC.

Zabinski, Catherine; Cole, David. 2000. Understanding the Factors That Limit Restoration Success on a Recreation- Impacted Subalpine Site. In: Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. 2000. Wilderness science in a time of change conference— Volume 5: Wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management; 2000 May 23– 27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 216-221. Available at:
http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/21866


Recreation Trends

Access Fund. 1995. Climbing in Wilderness. An inventory of recreational climbing use in the National Wilderness Preservation system. Unpublished manuscript, Access Fund, Boulder, CO 62pp.

Bayless, Donna S., John C. Bergstrom, Mark L. Messonnier, H. Ken Cordell. 1994. Assessing the Demand for Designated Wildlife Viewing Sites. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 2(3):75-93

Bergstrom, John C. and H. Ken Cordell. 1991. An Analysis of the demand for and value of outdoor recreation in the United States. Journal of Leisure Research, Vol 23(1): 67-86.

Bergstrom, John C. and H. Ken Cordell. 1988. The Future Supply and Demand of Outdoor Recreation in America. Trends, 25(4):39-42.

Bergstrom, John C., H. Ken Cordell, Linda Langner. 1994. RPA Assessment of Outdoor Recreation: Past, Current, and Future Directions. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report SE-87. 30 p.

Betz, Carter J. and H. Ken Cordell. 1988. Trends in Recreation Participation on Public Lands. Outdoor Recreation Benchmark 1988: Proceedings of the National Outdoor Recreation Forum, General Technical Report SE-52. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment. Station, 128-146.

Bowker, J.M. 2001 Outdoor Recreation by Alaskans: Projections for 2000 through 2020. General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-527. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 22p

Cole, D. N. (1993). Minimizing conflict between recreation and nature conservation. Ecology of greenways, 105-122.

Cole, D. N. (2004). Environmental impacts of outdoor recreation in wildlands. In M. Manfredo, J. Vaske, B. Bruyere, D. Field & P. Brown (Eds.), Society and Resource Management: A Summary of Knowledge (pp. 107-116). Jefferson, MO: Modern Litho.

Cole, D.N. 1996. Wilderness recreation use trends, 1965 through 1994. USDA For. Serv. Res. Paper INT-488.

Cole, David N. 1995. Wilderness recreation in the United States – trends in use, users, and impacts. International Journal of Wilderness 2(3): 14-18. Available at:
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_1996_cole_d001.pdf

Cole, David N., Wright, Vita. 2003. Wilderness visitors and recreation impacts: baseline data available for the twentieth century conditions. General Technical Report. RMRS-GTR-117. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 52p Available at:
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr117.pdf

Cordell, H. K. (2012). Outdoor recreation trends and futures: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station.

Cordell, H. K., Betz, C. J., & Green, G. T. (2008). Nature-based outdoor recreation trends and wilderness. International Journal of Wilderness, 14(2), 7-13.

Cordell, H. K., Betz, C. J., Green, G. T., Mou, S., Leeworthy, V. R., Wiley, P. C., Barry, J. J., & Hellerstein, D. 2004. Outdoor recreation for 21st century America: a report to the nation: the national survey on recreation and the environment. State College, PA: Venture Publishing. 293 p.

Cordell, H. Ken and Herbert, Nancy G. 2002. Popularity of birding is still growing. Birding, 34 (1):54-61.
http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/viewpub.jsp?index=2914

Cordell H. Ken; Herbert, Nancy G.; Pandolfi, Francis. 1999. The growing popularity of birding in the United States. Birding, 31(2):168-176. Available at:
http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/viewpub.jsp?index=1079

Cordell, H. Ken. 1997. The evolution of outdoor recreation in America. Scandinavian Forest Economics, 36:1-14.

Cordell, H. Ken and John C. Bergstrom. 1991. Outdoor Recreation Demand And Supply: Trends And Implications. Contemporary Issues in Outdoor Recreation: Technical Papers from the 1988 and 1989 SAF Conventions. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University, Center for Recreation Resources Policy, 35-43.

Cordell, H. Ken and Joseph O'Leary. 1998. Trends in outdoor recreation participation. Outdoor Recreation - A reader for Congress. ISBN 0-16-057007-7. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 140-143.

Cordell, H. Ken; Green, Gary T.; Betz, Carter J. (2009). Long-term National Trends in Outdoor Recreation Activity Participation---1980 to Now. http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/nrrt/nsre/IRISRec/IRISRec12rpt.pdf

Cordell, H. Ken; Teasley, Jeff; Super, Greg [and others]. 1997. Outdoor recreation in the United States: results from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment.

Cordell, H. Ken, Burt Lewis, and Barbara L. McDonald. 1995. Long-term Outdoor Recreation Participation Trends. Proceedings of the Fourth International Outdoor Recreation & Tourism Trends Symposium & the 1995 National Recreation Resource Planning Conference. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, 35-38.

Flather, C.H., Cordell, H.K. 1995. Outdoor recreation: historical and anticipated trends. Chapter 1 in Knight, R.L.//Gutzwiller, K.J., editors. Wildlife and recreationists: Coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, D.

Hartmann, Lawrence A. and H. Ken Cordell. 1984. Trend Tracking and Forecasting Recreation Demand and Consumption in the United States. In: Proceedings for Economic Value Analysis of Multiple Use Forestry. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Department of Resource Recreation Management, 96-111.

Manning, R. E. (1999). Studies in outdoor recreation search and research for satisfaction. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press.

Marion, J. L., Leung, Y. F., Eagleston, H., & Burroughs, K. (2016). A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research findings on visitor impacts to wilderness and protected natural areas. Journal of Forestry114(3), 352-362.

Marion, J. L., & Wimpey, J. (2007). Environmental impacts of mountain biking: science review and best practices. Managing Mountain Biking, IMBA's: Guide to Providing Great Riding. International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA) Boulder, 94-111.

Outdoor Industry Association, Outdoor Recreation Participation Study in the US, 7th edition, 2004

http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/ucmprd1/groups/public/documents/document/dcnr_001701.pdf

Outdoor Industry Foundation. (2012). Outdoor Recreation Participation Report 2012. Boulder, CO. 


Human Dimensions of Natural Resources

Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior.[Article]. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665-683.

Ajzen, I., & Driver, B. L. (1992). Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Leisure Choice. [Article]. Journal of Leisure Research, 24(3), 207-224.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Babbie, E. R. (1990). Survey research methods (Vol. 2): Wadsworth Publishing Company Belmont, CA.

Bullock, S. D., & Lawson, S. R. (2007). Managing the commons on Cadillac Mountain: A stated choice analysis of Acadia National Park visitors' preferences. Leisure Sciences, 30, 71-86.

Carr, D. S. (1995). Human dimensions in ecosystem management: A USDA Forest Service perspective (General Technical Report No. PSW-156). San Diego: USDA Forest Service

Cialdini, R. B. (1996). Activating and aligning two kinds of norms in persuasive communications. Journal of Interpretation Research, 1(1), 3-10

D'Antonio, A., Monz, C., Newman, P., Lawson, S., et al. (2012). The Effects of Local Ecological Knowledge, Minimum-Impact Knowledge, and Prior Experience on Visitor Perceptions of the Ecological Impacts of Backcountry Recreation. Environmental Management, 1-13

Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

Ewert, A. W. (1996). Human dimensions research and natural resource management. In A. W. Ewert (Ed.), Natural Resource Management: The human dimension (pp. 5-12). Boulder, CO Westview Press.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour: An introduction to theory and research. Sidney, Australia: Addison-Wesley.

Fishbein, M., & Manfredo, M. J. (1992). A theory of behavior change. In M. J. Manfredo (Ed.), Influencing human behavior theory and application in recreation, tourism, and natural resources management (pp. 29-50). Champaign, IL: Sagamore Pub. Inc.

Fishbein, M., & Yzer, M. C. (2003). Using theory to design effective health behavior interventions. Communication Theory, 13(2), 164-183.

Halpenny, E. A. (2010). Pro-environmental behaviours and park visitors: The effect of place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 409-421.

Heimlich, J. E., & Ardoin, N. M. (2008). Understanding behavior to understand behavior change: A literature review. Environmental Education Research, 14(3), 215-237.

Hwang, Y. H. (2000). Examining the causal relationships among selected antecedents of responsible environmental behavior. The Journal of environmental education, 31(4), 19.

Kaiser, F. G., Wolfing, S., & Fuhrer, U. (1999). Environmental attitude and ecological behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19(1), 1-19.

Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, 8(3), 239-260.

Kuentzel, W., Laven, D., Manning, R., & Valliere, W. (2008). When Do Normative Standards Matter Most? Understanding the Role of Norm Strength at Multiple National Park Settings. Leisure Sciences, 30(2), 127-142.

Manfredo, M. J., Teel, T. L., & Bright, A. D. (2004). Application of the concepts of values and attitudes in human dimensions of natural resources research. In M. J. Manfredo, J. J. Vaske, B. L. Bruyere, D. R. Field & P. J. Brown (Eds.), Society and natural resources: A summary of knowledge (pp. 271-282). Jefferson, MO: Modern Litho.

Manning, R., Lawson, S., Newman, P., Budruk, M., et al. (2004). Visitor perceptions of recreation-related resource impacts. Environmental impacts of ecotourism, 2, 259ñ271

McGuire, W. J. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 233-246). New York: Random House.

Petty, R. E., McMichael, S., & Brannon, L. A. (1992). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion: Applicaions in recreation and tourism. In M. J. Manfredo (Ed.), Influencing human behavior theory and application in recreation, tourism, and natural resources management (pp. 77-101). Champaign, IL: Sagamore Pub. Inc.

Reigner, N. (2008). Exploring Visitors: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Visitor Behavior and Improve the Efficacy of Visitor Information in Haleakal National Park. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.  

Tanner, C. (1999). Constraints on environmental behaviour. Journal of environmental psychology, 19(2), 145-157.

Trafimow, D., Sheeran, P., Conner, M., & Finlay, K. A. (2002). Evidence that perceived behavioural control is a multidimensional construct: Perceived control and perceived difficulty. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41(1), 101-121.

Vagias, W. M., Powell, R. B., Moore, D. D., & Wright, B. A. (2014). Predicting behavioral intentions to comply with recommended leave no trace practices. Leisure Sciences36(5), 439-457.

Vagias, W. M., Powell, R. B., Moore, D. D., & Wright, B. A. (2012). Development, psychometric qualities, and cross-validation of the Leave No Trace Attitudinal Inventory and Measure (LNT AIM). Journal of Leisure Research44(2), 234-256.

Vaske, J. J. (2008). Survey research and analysis: Applications in parks, recreation and human dimensions: Venture Publishing State College, PA.

Wyoming State Parks, Historic Sites and Trails. (2009). Visitor Survey. Cheyenne, WY 


Links to Research

Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute
www.leopold.wilderness.net

Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center
http://www.carhart.wilderness.net

Coalition for Education in the Outdoors: Research Symposium Proceedings

http://www.outdooredcoalition.org/

National Environmental Health Association
http://www.neha.org

National Outdoor Leadership School Research
http://nols.edu/resources/research/

NPS Research Learning Centers Clearinghouse
http://www.nature.nps.gov/socialscience/index.cfm

Outdoor Education Research and Evaluation Center

http://www.wilderdom.com/research.php

 

Outdoor Industry Association
http://www.outdoorindustry.org/

Recreation.gov Recreation Research Links
http://www.recreation.gov

Recreation Ecology Research Network - Learn more about Recreation Ecology! http://cnr.ncsu.edu/rern/

USDA-Forest Service-Pacific Northwest Research Station

 

USDA-Forest Service-North Eastern Research Station

 

USDA-Forest Service-Southern Research Station

 

USDA-Forest Service-Rocky Mountain Research Station

 

USDA-Forest Service-Pacific Southwest Research Station

 

USDA-Forest Service-North Central Research Station

Wilderness.net
http://www.wilderness.net

The Wilderness Institute – The University of Montana
http://www.cfc.umt.edu/

Wilderdom Outdoor Education Research and Evaluation Center
http://www.wilderdom.com/research.html


Miscellaneous Internet Links

Leave No Trace History - http://www.lnt.org/sites/default/files/Leave_No_Trace_History_Paper.pdf

Leave Only Footprints – Adventure Racing and the Environment
http://www.adventuresportsonline.com/basics.htm

Natural Resource Impacts of Mountain Biking
http://www.cfc.umt.edu/

Roper Research: Outdoor Recreation in America 2003
http://www.funoutdoors.com/research

Water Sanitation and Health (WSH) - Introduction to fact sheets on sanitation
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/emergencies/envsanfactsheets/en/index2.html


Links to Wilderness Legislation

Map of the National Wilderness Preservation Lands
http://www.wilderness.net/index.cfm?fuse=NWPS

The Wilderness Act of 1964
http://www.wilderness.net/nwps/legisact

The Wilderness Act Handbook
http://wilderness.org/sites/default/files/Wilderness-Act-Handbook-2004-complete.pdf