How do Go Anywhere (formerly Wag Bag) Restops, Biffy Bags and other systems like this work? Are these bad for the environment?

Generally speaking, bag-type systems for packing out human waste contain bags that are biodegradable. They are usually made with a blend of polymers and natural starches to break down in landfill conditions after 6-8 months, depending on conditions. There are generally two bags: one waste collection bag pre-loaded with a powder treatment used to contain the waste, and a heavy gauge bag to secure and transport waste. Most commercially available bags are approved for disposal with normal trash as group II non-hazardous waste.
While the use of bag type systems for disposing of solid human waste does in and of itself generate trash, recreationists will have to individually weigh the benefits, regulations and possible downside (creating more trash) of using such systems. More and more areas are now requiring that solid human waste be packed out and these systems offer a very sanitary and easy way to accomplish what could be a rather unpleasant task.